What is Cyber Security? | Definition, Types, and User Protection

What is Cyber Security?

Cyber security is the practice of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks. These cyber attacks are usually aimed at accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information, extorting money from users, or interrupting normal business processes.


Cyber security involves a range of techniques, processes, and practices designed to safeguard devices, data, and networks from unauthorized access, attacks, or damage. Its goal is to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information.

Types of Cyber Security

  1. Network Security: Protects the integrity, confidentiality, and accessibility of data and resources as they are transferred across or accessed through networks. Techniques include firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and intrusion prevention systems (IPS).
  2. Information Security: Ensures the protection of data, both in transit and at rest. This includes data encryption, access controls, and data masking.
  3. Application Security: Focuses on keeping software and devices free of threats. It includes security measures taken during the development of applications to protect them from attacks.
  4. Endpoint Security: Protects devices like computers, mobile phones, and tablets. Endpoint protection often includes antivirus software and advanced threat protection solutions.
  5. Cloud Security: Involves protecting data, applications, and infrastructures involved in cloud computing. This includes measures like cloud firewalls, encryption, and identity management.
  6. Identity and Access Management (IAM): Ensures that only authorized individuals can access certain data and systems. It includes multi-factor authentication (MFA), single sign-on (SSO), and user privileges.
  7. Mobile Security: Protects data on mobile devices like smartphones and tablets from threats such as unauthorized access, malware, and theft.
  8. Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning: Ensures an organization’s ability to recover from a cyber attack or other disruptive events and continue operations with minimal downtime.
  9. Operational Security: Processes and decisions for handling and protecting data assets. It includes managing user permissions and implementing protocols to protect data during daily operations.